Aurel Bulgac and Joaquín E. Drut at Seattle’s University of Washington and their colleague, Piotr Magierski, at the Warsaw University of Technology in Poland, made just such a discovery. On March 10 their findings were published by Physical Review Letters and offer insight into a new world that includes a type of quantum fluid that exists at the crossover state from fermionic to bosonic. “Simply by changing the temperature,” explains Bulgac to PhysOrg.com, “you have something that changes from behaving as a bosonic to behaving as a fermionic system. This is unusual behavior in any system so far.”What makes this superfluid so remarkable is that it exhibits properties of both bosons and fermions at the same time. By definition, something is either bosonic or fermionic. While it is, in fact, fermions (the elementary particles of ‘normal’ matter — electrons, protons, and neutrons — are fermions) that make up most bosons, once these molecules are created, they act in ways that are baffling. Bulgac and his colleagues describe it thus: “[It is] an unexpected mélange of both bosonic and fermionic properties in an utterly puzzling physical realization.”Another notable oddity is that the thermal properties of this type of superfluid are different from normal superfluid properties. One expects to see interaction between bosons in a bosonic superfluid system, and interactions between fermions in a fermionic superfluid system. Within this crossover system, however, there appears to be very little, if any, interaction between the quantum particles.Bulgac says, “Superfluid property is one of interaction. The interaction is strong, but it doesn’t show up in the thermal properties. We know that the system is a superfluid, but the thermal properties are those not normal to superfluid.”The discovery of this new superfluid type will possibly lead to a better understanding of matter, especially as it relates to understanding high temperature superconductors. Bulgac explains that although scientists created such superconductors, they are not very well understood. “This crossover superfluid has many characteristics that are similar to these superconductors,” he explains. “We hope this superfluid system is easier to understand, and that we can then project that understanding into a better understanding of superconductors.”Bulgac and his colleagues want to try to understand the properties of this unique, and paradoxical, system. They believe that it has the potential to unlock not only the secrets of superconductors, but also the workings of stars and of other condensed matter systems. Understanding this crossover superfluid could also, he asserts, help with the creation of new types of materials and matter that could have further practical uses to humanity in general.“Like everything else in physics,” he says, “you are able to predict and form new states of matter. And this is a new state of matter.”By Miranda Marquit, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com Citation: A Truly ‘Super’ Fluid (2006, March 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-03-super-fluid.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In the world of quantum mechanics, surprising discoveries are often made. For instance, what happens when you take a fermionic superfluid and convert it into a bosonic superfluid? The answer: a new superfluid that has surprising characteristics that a superfluid isn’t expected to have. But it can’t be described as anything other than a superfluid. Explore further A method to determine magnon coherence in solid-state devices
Besides the electrode material, the second advantage of this architecture is that it can have a much smaller distance between electrodes, called the separator, because this space doesn’t double as the flow channel as in the traditional architecture. By decreasing the separator to a thickness of only 1% of the electrode thickness – whereas the traditional “flow-between” mode commonly uses a 1-to-1 ratio of separator to electrode – the researchers were able to minimize the adverse effects of a thick separator on cell volume and ionic resistance, which otherwise decreases overall desalination performance.Faster and with fewer cyclesAfter theoretically showing that a flow-through electrode CD system using HCAM electrodes and a thin separator can compare favorably to the traditional flow-between CD systems in theory, the researchers verified these predictions by fabricating and testing an actual system. The researchers tested the flow-through electrode CD system with water of salinity between 50 and 250 mM and under applied voltages between 0.75 and 1.5 V. They found that, for water with a salinity of 250 mM at 1.25 V, the system could remove salt at an average rate of 0.96 mg of NaCl per gram of electrode per minute, which is 4-10 times higher than the rates of 0.1-0.25 for flow-between CD systems. They expect this sorption rate could be further improved by charging the system for shorter times, which would allow for more cycles per hour.Also, whereas flow-between CD systems can only reduce the salt concentration by 20 mM per charge, the new system demonstrated a concentration reduction of up to 70 mM per charge. Both performance benefits could lead to desalinating water more quickly and cheaply than standard CD techniques.“The high sorption rate increases water throughput, while the high concentration reduction per cycle reduces the number of stages required to desalinate a salt stream,” lead author Matthew Suss at Stanford and LLNL, on behalf of all the researchers, told Phys.org. “This translates into a reduced infrastructure cost for the electrode system. The flow-through geometry also has higher energy efficiency than the traditional flow-between geometry, as it ensures that all of the desalinated water in the system is used. In the previous systems, only the desalted water in the separator was used, but not that in the electrodes, and so the energy used to desalt the water in the electrode pores was largely wasted. Finally, the reduced spacer size reduces the overall resistance of the device, which further decreases energy cost.”Future of CDAs one of the senior authors, Juan Santiago of Stanford, explained, these improvements make flow-through CD an attractive technique for desalting water, particularly brackish water. “While CD should theoretically be able to desalinate any water with an efficiency comparable to RO, in its current state, CD is most useful and best applied to the important problem of processing brackish water type salinity solutions at slow rates,” Santiago said. “However, we should not underestimate the importance of treating brackish water. For example, in large regions of the world (including North America), brackish water is projected to be the main source of water for desalination processes that provide drinking water. Brackish water is also the concentration range of effluent of some industrial processes, such as coal bed methane production; treating this water is essential for proper practical waste reduction.”The researchers added that CD systems could make an impact on desalinating salt water on a small scale, such as in the form of truck-bed sized devices for disaster relief. “The efficiency of energy recovery devices for RO scales with their size,” Santiago said. “Thus, optimum efficiency is achieved for large plants, but the efficiency decreases significantly for smaller devices. As you reduce the required scale of the desalination plant, CD becomes more competitive and eventually more attractive than RO.”In the future, the researchers hope to improve upon another advantage of the flow-through system, which is its ability to operate for multiple stages.“While multiple-stage CD desalination is possible with flow-between, it is usually much harder to do than single-stage, and thus CD has been mostly confined to salinities that can be desalted in a single stage,” said Michael Stadermann at LLNL, one of the senior authors. “We think that flow-through-CD should be much easier to stage due to easier separation of desalination. A next step would be to build a multi-stage pilot system that can desalinate water streams with higher salinity and demonstrate desalination of sea water with good energy efficiency. In the longer term, we plan to scale up and reduce the cost of material synthesis and, eventually, we hope to enable commercialization of this technology.”Dr. Maarten Biesheuvel of Wetsus, the Netherlands’ Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, who also researches CDI systems but was not involved in the current study, thinks that the new flow-through electrode system looks promising for the future of water desalination.“The achievement of Suss, et al., is a very significant one, opening the eyes of the desalination community to a very different operational mode for CD, with some very interesting and beneficial features,” Biesheuvel said. “The flow-between mode of operation has become the ‘default setting’ for a CD design, admittedly also in our own work. The work of LLNL/Stanford makes us reevaluate if perhaps we have underestimated the potential of flow-through flow to speed up the CD process from the present, slower, diffusion time scale to the faster RC charging time scale, as Suss, et al., have shown is feasible.“In any case, it is exciting to see how in about five years time the interest in the CD technology has exploded around the world, having established itself as the primary runner-up to the established technologies of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. Within the US, development activities are now being undertaken at several universities (Stanford, MIT, Drexel, GeorgiaTech) and national laboratories (LLNL, Oak Ridge), and various industrial companies are pursuing commercialization around the world.”Biesheuvel’s research group will publish a paper in Energy & Environmental Science in which they demonstrate that constant-current operation has advantages over the traditional mode of constant-voltage operation, notably that the salinity of the produced fresh water remains constant in time instead of gradually varying. Now in a new study, researchers from Stanford University and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), both located near San Francisco, California, US, have redesigned the architecture of the typical CD system and demonstrated a desalination rate that is 4-10 times faster and a salt concentration reduction that is 3-4 times higher per charge compared with typical CD systems. Their paper is accepted for publication in an upcoming issue of Energy & Environmental Science.Flow betweenCD systems are most often designed so that the salty feed water flows between two porous electrodes, which the researchers call a “flow-between” CD system. By applying a voltage between the electrodes, ions in the feed water are removed and stored in the electric double layers (EDLs) in the micropores of the electrodes. Since opposite charges attract, the negatively charged chlorine anions are electrically adsorbed by the positively charged anode, while the positively charged sodium cations are pulled to the negatively charged cathode. When the electrodes become nearly full, water is pumped out of the system. New feed water is then introduced, and removing the voltage releases ions into a brine stream. These ions are then flushed out of the system and a new cycle can begin.Despite its potential advantages, flow-between CD systems also have some significant limitations. For one, it takes multiple charging steps to desalinate brackish (moderately salty) water, since these systems typically reduce the concentration of salt water by less than 20 millimolar (mM) per charge. Considering that brackish water has a salinity which can be as high as 500 mM – whereas seawater has a salinity of 500 mM or more – getting the salinity of even mildly brackish water down to a potable water ion concentration of 15 mM or so could take several charging steps. Further, since each desalination step can take 10 times longer than the system charging time, the total desalination time can be very long.Flow throughHere, the researchers show that they can improve on both these counts by redesigning the CD architecture. Instead of having the feed water flow between electrodes, their alternative structure feeds the water directly through the electrode pores. They call this design a “flow-through electrode” CD system. Although this design was investigated back in the ‘70s, the electrode material and its small pore size resulted in low performance, and there has been little research since then. © 2012 Phys.org (A) In the flow-between capacitive desalination cell, feed water flows between the electrodes through a porous separator, while salt is transported from the separator into the electrode nanopores. (B) In the flow-through cell, feed water flows directly through the electrode micropores, while salt is transported from the electrode micropores into the electrode nanopores. Image credit: Suss, et al. ©2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry (Phys.org) — As the world population increases and fresh water sources become scarcer, many people will likely rely on technologies that convert salt water to fresh water to meet their most basic needs. Currently, the most common method of water desalination is reverse osmosis, a process that removes water molecules from salt water, leaving salt ions (sodium and chlorine) in the leftover brine. But an alternative method called capacitive desalination (CD), also known as capacitive deionization (CDI), has the potential to operate with greater energy efficiency, lower pressures, and no membrane components compared to reverse osmosis. Water flows through the micropores of two electrodres, leaving behind salt ions (sodium and chlorine) in the electrode’s nanopores. Image credit: Suss, et al. ©2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry Explore further More information: Matthew E. Suss, et al. “Capacative desalination with flow-through electrodes.” Energy & Environmental Science. To be published. DOI: 10.1039/c2ee21498a R. Zhao, et al. “Energy consumption and constant current operation in membrane capacitive deionization.” Energy & Environmental Science. To be published. DOI: 10.1039/c2ee21737f As the scientists explain in this study, flow-between CD systems often use traditional carbon aerogels as the electrode material. But here, for the first time in a CD cell, the scientists chose a new electrode material called hierarchical carbon aerogel monoliths (HCAM). They explain that HCAM is better suited for the unique requirements of flow-through electrode systems due to its micron-scale pore network, into which size-tunable nanopores can be etched. As a result, the larger pores provide low hydraulic and electrical resistance since water molecules and ions can easily flow through, while the smaller pores provide a high specific capacitance since they can represent a very large amount of surface area and therefore store large amounts of salt ions. Wires turn salt water into freshwater Citation: Water desalination system works up to several times faster than others (2012, August 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-desalination-faster.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Scientists have known for some time that light can be used to trigger changes in light sensitive cells. They’ve also discovered that light can be used to help in visualizing biological functions in living organisms, such as mice and people. Unfortunately, in order to use such devices, light must be able to penetrate the skin, fat, muscle and other tissue in order to be useful inside the body. Now, in this new effort, the researchers have devised a means for circumventing this problem: a light-guiding hydrogel scaffolding capable of holding on to engineered cells.The hydrogels are made of water, biopolymers and cell media—their purpose is to allow for holding onto cells or more importantly, bioengineered cells after placement in the body (of mice thus far). The engineered cells respond in desired ways when exposed to light. To allow that to happen, the researchers fed a fiber optic cable though the skin of test mice that traveled to the location of the implanted hydrogel. Light fed into the fiber cable was routed directly to the hydrogel—the cells in its scaffolding then responded according to how they’d been programmed.In one of their experiments, the researchers used programmed HeLa cells that were caused to emit a kind of protein when exposed to light. When that protein is produced in the body, the pancreas creates more insulin. Thus, a means of controlling diabetes was shown. In another experiment, the researchers filled the hydrogel with cells that light up when exposed to a certain toxin, then after implanting the hydrogel, injected mice with the toxin. Using the fiber cable in reverse, the researchers were able to see the cells in the hydrogel lighting up in response to the presence of the toxin. More information: Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo, Nature Photonics (2013) DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.278AbstractPolymer hydrogels are widely used as cell scaffolds for biomedical applications. Although the biochemical and biophysical properties of hydrogels have been investigated extensively, little attention has been paid to their potential photonic functionalities. Here, we report cell-integrated polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels for in vivo optical-sensing and therapy applications. Hydrogel patches containing cells were implanted in awake, freely moving mice for several days and shown to offer long-term transparency, biocompatibility, cell viability and light-guiding properties (loss of <1 dB cm−1). Using optogenetic, glucagon-like peptide-1 secreting cells, we conducted light-controlled therapy using the hydrogel in a mouse model with diabetes and obtained improved glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, real-time optical readout of encapsulated heat-shock-protein-coupled fluorescent reporter cells made it possible to measure the nanotoxicity of cadmium-based bare and shelled quantum dots (CdTe; CdSe/ZnS) in vivo.Press release Journal information: Nature Photonics When injected as a hydrogel rather than in solution, an anticancer protein treats liver tumors more effectively Citation: Light-activated medical implants: Team develops light-guiding hydrogel for cell-based sensing (2013, October 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-10-light-activated-medical-implants-team-light-guiding.html (Phys.org) —A combined team of researchers from Harvard Medical School and several research institutions in Korea has developed a light-sensitive hydrogel that can be used as a cell based sensor. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their hydrogel and the ways it can be used. The hydrogels the team is working with are not yet ready for testing in people, though that is the ultimate goal. The hope is that some day soon, doctors may be able to implant a hydrogel into a person and then use it to either control a disease or to detect the presence of toxins or other chemicals that reside deep inside the body. © 2013 Phys.org Schematic of a hydrogel encapsulating cells for sensing and therapy. The light-guiding hydrogel establishes a bi-directional optical communications with the cells, allowing real-time interrogation and control of the biological system in vivo. Credit: Harvard Bio-Optics Lab Explore further An artistic illustration of cells encapsulated in a hydrogel implanted in the body. The hydrogel illuminates light onto the cells to perform sensing and therapy. Credit: Harvard Bio-Optics Lab This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Geology The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. Credit: NASA Scientists know that the sun undergoes a sunspot cycle of approximately 11 years—some spots appear, grow cooler and then slowly move toward the equator and eventually disappear—the changes to the sun spots cause changes to the brightness level of the sun—as the level waxes and wanes, plants here on Earth respond, growing more or less in a given year—this can be seen in the width of tree rings. In this new effort, the researchers gathered petrified tree samples from a region of Germany that was covered by lava during a volcanic eruption approximately 290 million years ago (during the Permian period), offering a historical record of sun activity.The research pair obtained 43 petrified tree specimens (tree-trunk slices) and report that they were able to count 1,917 rings which were preserved well enough to allow for observation under a microscope. Because the trees had all died at the same time, the researchers were able to establish a baseline between them which allowed for comparing tree ring growth between samples over the same time periods—which covered 79 years. Doing so, they report, revealed very clearly a cycle of growth similar to that seen in modern trees, though in this case, it was slightly different. Today the cycle is an average of 11.2 years, back then it was 10.6—close enough, the researchers suggest, to conclude that the sun has been behaving very predictably for at least 290 million years.It should be noted that not everyone agrees with the theory that sunspot activity leaves such a clear record in tree rings—other factors might be involved such as general global temperature, weather patterns or even outbreaks of insect populations. More information: Ludwig Luthardt et al. Fossil forest reveals sunspot activity in the early Permian, Geology (2017). DOI: 10.1130/G38669.1AbstractModern-day periodic climate pattern variations related to solar activity are well known. High-resolution records such as varves, ice cores, and tree-ring sequences are commonly used for reconstructing climatic variations in the younger geological history. For the first time we apply dendrochronological methods to Paleozoic trees in order to recognize annual variations. Large woody tree trunks from the early Permian Fossil Forest of Chemnitz, southeast Germany, show a regular cyclicity in tree-ring formation. The mean ring curve reveals a 10.62 yr cyclicity, the duration of which is almost identical to the modern 11 yr solar cycle. Therefore, we speculate and further discuss that, like today, sunspot activity caused fluctuations of cosmic radiation input to the atmosphere, affecting cloud formation and annual rates of precipitation, which are reflected in the tree-ring archive. This is the earliest record of sunspot cyclicity and simultaneously demonstrates its long-term stable periodicity for at least 300 m.y. © 2017 Phys.org Citation: Ancient tree rings suggest sunspot cycles have been ongoing for 290 million years (2017, January 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-01-ancient-tree-sunspot-ongoing-million.html Explore further Recent decades likely wettest in four millennia in Tibet This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—A pair of researchers affiliated with the Natural History Museum in Chemnitz and Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, both in Germany, has found evidence in ancient tree rings of a solar sunspot cycle millions of years ago similar to the one observed in more modern times. In their paper published in the journal Geology, Ludwig Luthardt and Ronny Rößler describe how they gathered an assortment of petrified tree samples from a region in Germany and used them to count sunspot cycles.
Through your novel you have turned into Palestine activist, have you seen youth associating with your cause and with your writing?The experience of reading The Almond Tree changes people of all ages’ perception of Palestinians. Let’s face it, most people only care about what happens to them in their daily life, in their small world. They don’t care about another people in a distant land. Neither did I until I became a witness to what I didn’t want to see. Through the characters in The Almond Tree, the reader steps into the shoes of a Palestinian and sees what it’s like to be him. Throughout the novel, I tried to keep my writing as cold as possible because if I don’t tell the reader how my characters feel, I force the reader to project his feelings onto the characters. That creates empathy. That is why so many people feel as though the story is happening to them. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ Do tell our readers something about your novel? Are you happy with the response to your debut novel?I’m thrilled with the response. Ever since I lived in Israel, I wanted to try and find a way to shine a light and show a better way. I’ve been able to do that through The Almond Tree. People who could care less about the conflict are reading it. A writer can reach into readers’ hearts and change them. I’m not advocating hate, I’m trying to show how strong we could be if we worked together to advance humanity instead of dividing and destroying each other. The vast majority of readers are responding to my book extremely positively. Of course you will always have a few extremists on both sides. On the Jewish side a few people have said it’s biased. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixOn the Palestinian side, I have been accused of hijacking the Palestinian narrative. The reality is that I’ve written a novel in first person in the voice of a Palestinian. If he saw through Israeli eyes, it would be unbelievable. I didn’t write the Palestinian narrative, nor did I write the Israeli narrative.I did what President Obama asked an auditorium packed with Jewish Israelis to do, namely, try and put yourself in Palestinian shoes and see the world through their eyes. In conflict resolution, you are taught that it’s important to try and put yourself in the other’s shoes, and that’s what I have tried to do. There are many issues like Kashmir issue, Afghanistan conflict, in your opinion do you think that literature can bring a change in outlook? Till now we used to hear biased information and views, on these issues.A powerful story can change the world. Look at how the Kite Runner changed the way millions of people thought about Afghanistan, for example. I have been thrilled to have others see this possibility for The Almond Tree. What are your future projects? Will you again raise awareness through your writing, on certain unresolved international issue?I am trying to finish my next novel. This one is from the POV of a Jewish American woman and her relationship with a Palestinian man. I write about what I know, saw, lived, witnessed, learned and heard and this novel is based on many of the experiences I had while living in Israel for seven years, studying Middle Eastern studies for a decade, and the countless stories told to me by Palestinian and Israeli friends over the years. I wish I could shine a light on all injustices, but I can’t. Do give some message to our readers.May the battles that we fight be for the advancement of humanity.
Get ready to groove along with the latest dancing sensations of the country. A dance showcase by the winners of Indian dance reality show, India’s Dancing Superstar – MJ 5 and professional dancers from Big Dance Center is being organised at the Kamini Auditorium. MJ5 is a group of dancers who take inspiration from Michael Jackson and create visual spectacles. They are widely appreciated and loved by a massive following of people for the style and extravagant elements of surprise in their performances. The members of the group are – R Kartik, Shraey Khanna, Rohit Singh, Vishnu , Himanshu Gola. They received their formal training in dance at Big Dance Centre, and were also the part of the core faculty. Professional Dance Study Program (PDSP) annually organised by Big Dance Center, is a platform to the budding feet that are meant to dance. To pursue a career in dance, this program sets to be a prolific course with a direction to destination. PDSP focuses on the growth of an individual not only as a dancer, but also as a profound performer.
Kolkata: A team of Bidhannagar police arrested a notorious criminal from Dakshindari area in the city and recovered a huge amount of codeine phosphate liquid mixture.Acting on a tip off, a team of police raided BR Ambedkar play ground near Dakshindari 24 No. Rail Gate.The officers were roaming in the area when the notorious criminal SK Raju (22) of Baguiati area in North 24 Parganas reached the place.The police were in plain clothes for which he could not apprehend that he was being surrounded by police officers. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsAccording to a senior police officer under Bidhannagar police commissionarate, around 7 ltr of codeine phosphate liquid mixture was seized from him.According to the preliminary investigation, police suspect that he was going to sell it in some place inthe city.According to police, during interrogation he failed to produce any valid documents or licence for carrying or possessing the same.A specific case was started at Lake Town police station on the basis of which a detailed probe has been initiated. The accused has been booked under sections 21(C) of the NDPS Act. Raju is being remanded to police custody after being produced before Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedBarasat Court.Police are investigating if others were involved in the incident. They are trying to figure who he was trying to sell the substance to.According to police, Raju had been involved in various anti-social activities and many cases are pending against him at different police stations.Police are also investigating from where Raju had bought the codeine phosphate liquid mixture and the purpose behind buying it.
Kolkata: In a bid to counter the spreading of canards by BJP before the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, Trinamool Congress has set up a cultural cell on Wednesday.Indranil Sen, minister of state for Information and Cultural Affairs will head the cell. The rest of the members include noted academician Nrisingha Prasad Bhaduri, Subhaprasanna, poet Subodh Sarkar, actor June malliah, Trinamool MLA and actor Chiranjit Chakraborty and many others.The main purpose of the cell will be to protest against the canards and hate politics that are being spread by BJP. The cell will be active on social media and will protest against the unconfirmed viral videos. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”Any attempt to destabilise the society will be prevented and we will go to the people to make them aware of any divisive politics,” said Suvaprasanna.Chiranjit Chakraborty said: “we will protest against any attempt to scare people.” It may be mentioned that intellectuals had protested against the incomplete publication of the National Register of Citizens in Assam.It may be recalled that in 2006, when Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee had launched a movement against forcible acquisition of farmland from unwilling farmers in Singur, she got the support of intellectuals who had visited Singur and Nandigram regularly and had organised a movement against CPI(M). Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedAfter Trinamool Congress came to power in 2011, many of them joined the state government. Bratya Basu became a minister in Banerjee’s cabinet in 2011 and Arpita Ghosh became an MP in 2014.Trinamool Congress is going all out to protest against the canards that are being circulated by BJP on social media. A digital conclave will be held on September 10, where the keynote address will be delivered by the party’s Youth Congress president and MP Abhishek Banerjee.